Exodus Commentary

Gary North

There are three separate commentaries in the series: Moses and Pharaoh, The Sinai Strategy, and Tools of Dominion.

The book of Exodus presents Israel as God’s covenant nation. God reveals Himself as the deliverer of Israel, which He describes as His son. This made Pharaoh a kidnapper.

Moses and Pharaoh: Dominion Religion vs. Power Religion

In the fifteenth century before the birth of Jesus, Moses came before Pharaoh and made what seemed to be a minor request: Pharaoh should allow the Israelites to make a three-day journey in order to sacrifice to their God. But this was not a minor request; given the theology of Egypt, it was the announcement of a revolution.The conflict between Moses and Pharaoh was a conflict between the religion of the Bible and its rival, the religion of humanism. It is not common for scholars to identify Egypt’s polytheism with modern humanism, but the two theologies share their most fundamental doctrines: the irrelevance of the God of the Bible for the affairs of men; the evolution of man into God; the impossibility of an infallible word of God; the nonexistence of permanent laws of God; the impossibility of temporal judgment of God; and a belief in the power of man.

What Bible commentators have failed to understand is that the conflict between Moses and Pharaoh was at heart a conflict between the two major religions in man’s history, dominion religion and power religion, with the third religion – escapist religion -represented by the Hebrew slaves. What they have also failed to point out is that there is an implicit alliance between the power religion and the escapist religion. This alliance still exists.

To read this book as originally published, you must have the free DjVu reader installed on your computer. It is similar to the Adobe Acrobat reader. Download it here:

Download DjVuTo download Moses and Pharaoh, click here:

Moses and PharaohThis book is a detailed study of the conflict between Moses and Pharaoh. It discusses the implications of this conflict in several areas: theology, politics, sociology, and especially economics.

The Sinai Strategy: Economics and the Ten Commandments

The question must then be raised: What was it about the Ten Commandments which made possible the development of capitalism in the West, and nowhere else, except in cultures influenced by an already capitalistic West?My answer: It was Western man’s confidence in the validity of the Ten Commandments which alone created free market institutions in world history.

Is it therefore not sufficient to ask: Is capitalism Christian? It is not sufficient to answer that the ethics of Christianity is generally in accordance with the ethics of capitalism. It is not sufficient to appeal to natural law in the Christian West as the foundation of capitalism.

What must be asked is a far more controversial question: Is orthodox, Bible-based Christianity inherently capitalistic? In other words, in cultures where the Bible is preached from Genesis to Revelation, will there be an innate tendency for that culture to adopt a free market economy? Therefore, is socialism inherently heretical biblically? I answer: “Yes.”

The Sinai Strategy is a detailed look at the Ten Commandments and their social, political, and, especially, economic implications. But why should you devote the many hours that it will take to read this book? Here are a dozen possible reasons.

You want to understand the Ten Commandments better.You want to understand economics better.

You want to know more about the importance of the Ten Commandments in history.

You want to answer theological liberals who attack the Ten Commandments as valid only in an ancient agricultural world.

You want to answer political liberals who insist that Jesus was a socialist revolutionary, or close to it.

You want to see if the Bible sets forth moral and judicial principles that inevitably produce a free market economy if widely obeyed.

You want to answer skeptics (humanists and pietists) who insist that “There is no such thing as Christian economics.”

You want to know if the Ten Commandments are an unbreakable unity.

You want to know why Christians take a day off on Sunday rather than Saturday.

You want to know if the civil government should prohibit people from working on Sunday.

You want to know how the Ten Commandments should be applied in the modern world.

You want to know how the Ten Commandments ought to be numbered and why.

This is a revised edition of a book published in 1986. You do not need DjVu to read it.

To download The Sinai Strategy, click here:

The Sinai Strategy

Tools of Dominion: The Case Laws of Exodus

People in the West have all heard of the Ten Commandments. Some of them even know where these commandments appear in the Bible. One place is in Exodus 20. (The other is in Deuteronomy 5) Now, where would you suppose that we might find God’s rules and regulations for self-government, family government, and civil government?

How about in Exodus 21? This is exactly where the case laws of Exodus appear. Also in Exodus 22 and 23. Three brief chapters, plus a few rules and regulations in the remaining eighteen chapters-yet look at the size of this book!

Case laws are the specific applications of one or more of God’s Ten Commandments in specific areas of life. Case laws are where “the rubber meets the road” for those who claim that they are doing their best to obey the Ten Commandments. Will our political leaders ecourage us to honor the Ten Commandments by honoring the case laws, or will they encourage us to break the Ten Commandments by ignoring the case laws?

For over three centuries, American Christians and humanists alike have agreed: there is no need to enforce the case laws. At most, only the “moral laws” of the Bible should be enforced. What are these “moral laws”? In practice, they are whatever laws the voters are familiar with and satisfied with. People baptize the status quo with the designation, “moral laws of God.”

God is not mocked. Societies that think they are being progressive by ignoring the specifics of God’s law discover that they cannot provide justice. Individuals find themselves at the mercy of unjust rules. They pursue freedom from God and gain bondage under men.

To download Tools of Dominion, click here:

Tools of Dominion


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